campaign againts death penalty wikipedia The debate on the abolition of the death penalty is kindled anew, as people still continue in some countries of the world being sentenced to death and executed. Each of us has seen or read pictures, TV - reports and newspaper articles on the subject. Opinions concerning the continuation or abolition of the death penalty are still split, but there are now, due to the global presence of some human rights organizations, led by Amnesty International, more and more opponents of the death penalty.
The debate on the abolition of the death penalty has grown up today to a debate with profound cultural background, particularly regarding the role of the Near and Middle East (Iran, Saudi - Arabia) in the discussion. In these countries, executions of people convicted because of their sexuality or their religious beliefs to death, are still on the agenda. The United Nations regularly deal with this problem and could move even a few nations to abolish the death penalty.
Execution Chamber wikipedia The quote of the Indian politician and Nobel Peace Prize winner Mahatma Gandhi “eye for an eye - and the whole world will be blind " had been already thought – provoking for many people in the 20th Century, including senior politicians and is still relevant today.
In the last several centuries, with the emergence of modern nation states , justice came to be increasingly associated with the concept of natural and legal rights . The period saw an increase in standing police forces and permanent penitential institutions. Rational choice theory , a utilitarian approach to criminology which justifies punishment as a form of deterrence as opposed to retribution, can be traced back to Cesare Beccaria , whose influential treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764) was the first detailed analysis of capital punishment to demand the abolition of the death penalty.   Jeremy Bentham , regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism, also called for the abolition of the death penalty.  Beccaria, and later Charles Dickens and Karl Marx noted the incidence of increased violent criminality at the times and places of executions. Official recognition of this phenomenon led to executions being carried out inside prisons, away from public view.
With the other colonies watching intently, Massachusetts led the resistance to the British, forming a shadow revolutionary government and establishing militias to resist the increasing British military presence across the colony. In April 1775, Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, ordered British troops to march to Concord, Massachusetts, where a Patriot arsenal was known to be located. On April 19, 1775, the British regulars encountered a group of American militiamen at Lexington, and the first volleys of the American Revolutionary War were fired.