Both debt and equity can be found on the balance sheet. The assets listed on the balance sheet are purchased with this debt and equity. Companies that use more debt than equity to finance assets have a high leverage ratio and an aggressive capital structure. A company that pays for assets with more equity than debt has a low leverage ratio and a conservative capital structure. That said, a high leverage ratio and/or an aggressive capital structure can also lead to higher growth rates, whereas a conservative capital structure can lead to lower growth rates. It is the goal of company management to find the optimal mix of debt and equity, also referred to as the optimal capital structure.
Funded debt is the technical term applied to the portion of a company's long-term debt that is made up of bonds and other similar long-term, fixed-maturity types of borrowings. No matter how problematic a company's financial condition may be, the holders of these obligations cannot demand payment as long as the company pays the interest on its funded debt. In contrast, bank debt is usually subject to acceleration clauses and/or covenants that allow the lender to call its loan. From the investor's perspective, the greater the percentage of funded debt to total debt disclosed in the debt note in the notes to financial statements , the better. Funded debt gives a company more wiggle room.